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Neuroprotective Methodologies in the Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis Current Status of Clinical and Pre-clinical Findings

Author(s):

Tarun Kapoor and Sidharth Mehan*   Pages 1 - 16 ( 16 )

Abstract:


Multiple sclerosis an idiopathic and autoimmune associated motor neuron disorder that attacks myelinated neurons in specific brain regions of young people, especially females; characterized by oligodendrocytes destruction causes demyelination, neuroinflammation, mitochondrial abnormalities, oxidative stress and neurotransmitter deficits associated with motor and cognitive dysfunctions, vertigo and muscle weakness. The limited intervention of pharmacologically active compounds like interferon-β, mitoxantrone, fingolimod and monoclonal antibodies used clinically are majorly associated with adverse drug reactions. Pre-clinically, gliotoxin ethidium bromide mimics the behavioral and neurochemical alterations in multiple sclerosis like experimental animals associated with the down regulation of adenyl cyclase/cAMP/CREB further responsible for varieties of neuropathogenic factors. Despite the considerable investigation of neuroprotection in curing multiple sclerosis, some complications still constrained. As of now approachable drugs give only symptomatic alleviation but don’t end the development of illness. In this way, the advancement of unused helpful techniques remains neglected restorative requires. The limitations of current steady treatment may be because of their activity at one of many neurotransmitters included or their failure to up direct signaling flag bearers detailed to have a vital part in neuronal sensitivity, biosynthesis of neurotransmitters and its discharge, development and separation of neuron, synaptic versatility and cognitive working. Therefore, the current review strictly focused on the exploration of various clinical and pre-clinical features available for multiple sclerosis to understand the pathogenic mechanisms and to introduced pharmacological interventions associated with the upregulation of intracellular adenyl cyclase/cAMP/CREB activation to ameliorate multiple sclerosis like features.

Keywords:

Multiple sclerosis, oligodendrocytes, demyelination, mitochondrial dysfunctioning, adenyl cyclase, ethidium bromide

Affiliation:

Neuropharmacology Division, ISF College of Pharmacy, Moga, Punjab, Neuropharmacology Division, ISF College of Pharmacy, Moga, Punjab



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