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Acute and Sub-Acute Toxicity Studies and Pharmacodynamic Studies of Standardized Extract of Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague (Fruits) Against Chemically Induced Inflammation in Rats


Nikita Saraswat*, Neetu Sachan and Phool Chandra   Pages 1 - 20 ( 20 )


Introduction: Nowadays the researchers have been attempting to use herbal products as medicines which have proven in many aspects to cause lesser side effects. The fruit part of Trachyspermum ammi (L.) - Ajwain has been an integral part of the Indian medicine system with much importance in Ayurveda and Unani medicine system and is prescribed by Vaidya gurus and Hakim’s in raw form or as a major constituent in the powdered formulations.

Objective: This research aimed to evaluate acute and sub-acute toxicity of standardized T. ammi fruit and its anti-inflammatory property using experimental models.

Methods: The extract of herbs was spectroscopically analyzed for the estimation of the number of bioactive compounds. Then acute and sub-acute toxicity analysis of the herbal extract was performed to ensure the toxic effects if any. Biochemical parameters like ALT, AST, ALP, etc. and histopathological analysis was performed to study the toxicity of extract. Then, the anti-inflammatory activity of the T. ammi fruit extract employing Carrageenan and formalin induced edema model in rats were carried out.

Results: The ajwain seeds had a pungent smell and a characteristic odor. The powder microscopy clearly showed Endosperm, Unicellular warty trichomes, striated cuticle in surface view, vittae, Endodermis and Vascular Strand. Phytochemical tests reported the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, tannins, etc. and characteristic peaks in UV, Mass, NMR, FTIR and HPLC were observed on running the extract. Acute and Sub-Acute toxicity studies did not report any toxicity, and significant anti-inflammatory action was recorded.

Conclusion: The spectroscopic and pharmacognostic analysis has shown the strong presence of flavonoids, mineral matter, protein, phenols, saponins, carbohydrates, volatile oils, fiber, glycosides and fat. Spectroscopic study interpretations have shown the presence of compounds like thymol, para-cymene, γ-terpinene, α- and β-pinene, carvone, limonene, saponins, , β-phellendrene, βfenchyl alcohol, α-thujene, β-phellendrene, α-thujene etc. No signs of toxicity were recorded during acute and sub-acute toxicity studies by noting the relative weight and histopathological analysis. A significant anti-inflammatory potential of T. ammi fruit extract was found and LD50 must be beyond 3000 mg/kg. The results of this study could be useful; in setting the set of quality parameters for further identification of the crude herb and preparation of the monograph.


Trachyspermum ammi (L.), Toxicity, Inflammation, Analysis, biochemical evaluation, histopathology


Institute of Pharmacy, Pranveer Singh Institute of Technology, Kanpur-Agra-Delhi National HighwayBhauti, Kanpur (UP)-209 305, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, IFTM University, Lodhipur Rajput, Delhi Road (NH-24), Moradabad (UP)-244 102, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, IFTM University, Lodhipur Rajput, Delhi Road (NH-24), Moradabad (UP)-244 102

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